Daily Archives: 27/11/2016

What is the optimal surgical management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast?

Management of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast:

A Clinical Practice Guideline



What is the optimal surgical management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast?


Should breast irradiation be offered to women with DCIS, following breast-

conserving surgery (defined as excision of the tumour with microscopically clear resection margins)?


Are there patients who could be spared breast irradiation post–breast-conserving surgery or DCIS? What is the role of tamoxifen in the management of DCIS?


Target Population

These recommendations apply to women with DCIS.


Recommendations and Key Evidence

Surgical Management Women with DCIS of the breast who are candidates for breast-conserving surgery should be offered the choice of breast-conserving surgery or total mastectomy. Mastectomy with the option for reconstruction remains….

Development and Metal evaporation

Development and Metal evaporation After the electron beam broke the polymer into fragments, the exposed resist would be dissolved by a developer solution such as MIBK (Methyl Isobutyl Ketone). MIBK is a strong developer so it can remove parts of the unexposed resist. By adding IPA (Isopropyl Alcohol) to the developer so that the MIBK solution becomes weaker. In fact, we adopted two types of development solution. First, dip the chip in developer which is dissolved 1:3 in MIBK:IPA; MIBK (methylisobutylketon) in IPA (isopropanol) for 45 seconds. Chip will be sunk in the second developer which is Ethyl Glycol Monomethyl Ether in methanol with ratio 1:2 for 7-10 seconds.Following, samples will be evaporated with metal materials. In order to start running UHV, we need to turn the cool….

UHV: Ultra High Vacuum

Electron beam patterning A pattern would be designed and drawn with the support of Elphy Quantum software (Design CAD by GDSII d – Calma Stream). Exposure pattern was done by LEO 1430 SEM. Figure 4.5: Pattern design for CNTs Initially, samples were loaded to LEO-chamber with the acceleration voltage of 30 kV, beam current 40 A. The wanted position for exposing, dose, current, spot-size e, etc will be adjusted on the monitor before exposure samples. When the exposure process takes place, the electron beam breaks the polymer into fragments and modifies the resist, the resist sensitivity is 200 C/cm2. The pattern was exposed twice: rough exposure is used for large details. working are is 265 m , current is 50 pA; fine exposure is used for the tiny….